Book review : Sapiens ,A brief history of Humankind.

Reviewed by: Muhammad shehryar.

Student of IR at the University of Peshawar

————————————————————————–

If you want to know the history of mankind and if you are curious to know about the events that changed the fate of humans from animals to organized human beings, If you want to know the emergence of language and writing, the arrival of various religions, the establishment of empires, The rise of Industries, sciences and the way of living then this book ( Sapiens ) will quench your thirst of curiosity.

The topics that make this book Interesting are ……

FOREBEARS( Ancestors) OF SAPIENS :

The human species first evolved on earth planet 2.5 million years ago from the earliest genus of apes called “Southern Ape “. Gradually sapiens spreads to different continents and evolved under different environment and ecological conditions so they evolved at six categories. Today only one specie “ homo sapiens” remains and has replaced others species.

 

COGNITIVE REVOLUTION :

About seventy thousand years ago, homo sapiens changed their behaviour abruptly by thinking and sharing Information by using language. According to the scholars, this evolution didn’t happen directly but comes under the accidental mutations in sapiens DNA. For survival, they made different tools for hunting and cutting.

 

AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION :

About 1000 years, Homo sapiens started planting wheat. Here a question arises that agricultural revolution was the history’s biggest achievement or Fraud? Harari argues that the agricultural revolution was a fraud because it didn’t secure the physical and economic security. Homo sapiens who ate animals before was now dependent on crops. This brought greed in humans for resources. Harari also says that It was the biggest achievement of history because that leads to the emergence of society and Culture.

ESTABLISHMENT OF TRIBES:-

As mentioned earlier that humans evolved to live in families which lead to the creation of societies and then empires. As the domain became broader they felt the need for some order to manage their socio-economic and political affairs. Then they came with some Imagined orders and called them divine laws. That divided Sapiens into genders, Castes, classes, and races. This shaped different norms for each society according to their status. To Implement these rules they made armies and police to control law and order in. Nature does not divide humanity into classes, Genders and races, it also does not establish any norms and values, It was all created by humans. Every division and implementation of laws are made for power, politics

and resources.

ARRIVAL OF MONEY AND WRITING:-

Between 3500 BC to 300 BC, the Sumerians started writing because their memories were overloaded with data they need to store the Information of land and property etc. The coin concept comes when tribes started trade among them.

CONCEPT OF RELIGION:- As different tribes came into existence they had made their norms by saying that are norms are divine laws. First, the belief was of polytheism then monotheism brought a great shift in the direction by rejecting all other beliefs. Harari explains the concept of God as “Good and evil”, According to him if there is any God then why their conflict, Calamites, Massacre, bloodshed, hunger, poverty and greed in this world.

THE TAKEUP OF HUMAN OVER THIS UNIVERSE:-

The dawn of modern world rose when humans accepted their ignorance and began

doubting every universal truth. This triggered the scientific revolution.Capitalism and

Industrialization was the two other earmarks of the modern era which evolved owing to imperialism to some extent and human intelligence to a larger extent. This had changed the world forever.

 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.